There are two ways of widening the gap between a good tee shot and a bad one. One is to inflict a severe and immediate punishment on a bad shot, to place its perpetrator in a bunker or in some other trouble which will demand the sacrifice of a stroke in recovering.
The other is to reward the good shot by making the second shot simpler in proportion to the excellence of the first. The reward may be of any nature but it is more commonly one of four-a better view of the green, an easier angle from which to attack a slope, an open approach past guarding hazards, or even a better run to the tee shot itself.
As quoted by Tom Doak in Tom Doak’s Little Red Book of Golf Course Architecture